Working Principle of the Wind Turbine
A wind turbine is a device that uses wind energy to drive blades to rotate, thereby generating electricity. Wind generator is generally composed of wind turbines, generators, tails, towers, speed-limiting safety mechanisms and energy storage devices. The principle of a wind turbine is relatively simple: the wind wheel rotates under the action of the wind, and converts the kinetic energy of the wind into the mechanical energy of the wind turbine shaft. The generator is driven by a wind turbine shaft to generate electricity.
Basic configuration of the wind generator
The wind wheel is a kind of wind collecting device. Its function is to transform the kinetic energy of the flowing air into the mechanical energy of the rotation of the wind wheel.
In wind power generation, this specialized propeller blade is still used. Among the types of wind turbine, there are three types that have been adopted, namely DC generators, synchronous AC generators and asynchronous AC generators. Low-power wind power generation mostly uses synchronous or asynchronous AC generators, and the AC power generated is converted into DC power through rectifier devices.
The advantages of a synchronous AC generator are its low efficiency and its ability to generate more power than a DC generator at low wind speeds, so it can adapt to a wide range of wind speeds. Synchronous AC generator can provide magnetic field current on its own, but the cost is higher.
In wind turbine, the function of the direction governor is to make the wind turbine face the wind direction at any time, so as to obtain wind energy to the maximum. Except for downwind wind power generators, almost all wind power generators generally use the tail to control the windward direction. The empennage is generally located at the rear end of the wind wheel, which is located in the wake region of the wind wheel. Only when the empennage of individual wind turbine is installed at a relatively high position, it can avoid the impact of wind turbine wake flow on it. The material of the empennage usually adopts the galvanized sheet steel.
The speed limit safety mechanism is used to ensure the safe operation of wind turbine . The speed and power of the wind wheel of the wind turbine are closely related to the wind power. The wind wheel speed and power increase with the increase of wind speed. If the wind speed is too high, the wind wheel speed will be too high and the generator will be overloaded. Excessive wind turbine speed and generator overload will endanger the operation safety of the wind generator. The setting of the speed-limiting safety mechanism can keep the rotation speed of the wind generator rotor substantially constant within a certain wind speed range. In addition to speed limiting devices, wind turbines are generally equipped with special braking devices. When the wind speed is too high, the wind wheel can be stopped, so to ensure the safety of the wind wheel at extremely high wind speeds.
The tower is the supporting mechanism of the wind generator and it is also an important component of the wind turbine. In consideration of factors such as easy relocation, cost reduction and so on, 100-watt wind turbine usually use tubular towers. The tubular tower is mainly composed of steel pipes, and tensioning cables are arranged in four directions. Larger wind turbine towers generally use truss structures consisting of angle steels or round steels.