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    Tag: working principle

    Pneumatic Cylinder Working Principle

    A pneumatic cylinder is a cylindrical metal machine that guides a piston in a straight-line reciprocating movement in a cylinder. The air converts heat energy into mechanical energy through expansion in the engine cylinder, and the gas receives piston compression in the compressor cylinder to increase the pressure.

    How Magnetic Flow Meter Works?

    A magnetic flow meter, mag meter, or electromagnetic flow meter is a kind of instrument which measures the volume flow rate of the conductive fluid based on the principle of Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction. With a large measurable flow range, the ratio of the maximum flow rate to the minimum flow rate maintains above 20:1. The mag flow meter is suitable for wide range of industrial pipe diameter, and the maximum can reach up to 3m. The output signal and the measured flow are linear, and the magnetic flow meter has high measurement precision. It can effectively measure the flow rate of fluids with a conductivity more than 5μs/cm, such as acid solution, alkaline solution, saline solution, water, sewage, corrosive liquid, mud, ore pulp, and paper pulp. Nevertheless, the electromagnetic flow meter cannot be used to measure the flow of gases, steam and purified water.
    Electromagnetic flow meter

    How Does a Combustible Gas Detector Work?

    Combustible gas has certain characteristics of diffusion. In order to prevent the accidents caused by combustible gas leakage, the key lies in effectively controlling its continuous diffusion. Moreover, flammable gases will spread quickly driven by external forces. As a result, burning and explosion will take place. How to prevent the occurrence of this kind of accidents? What we need to do is often detecting the concentration of combustible gas whether it exceed the standard. Once the concentration exceeds the standard, give an alarm quickly and we take actions immediately. Here combustible gas detector plays an important role.
    A combustible gas detector is a detector that monitor the concentration of single or multiple combustible gases and give an alarm. Combustible gas detectors are mainly divided into two types, catalytic type and infrared optical type base on the working principle.

    Induction Motor Working Principle

    Through the relative motion of the rotating magnetic field generated by the stator (its speed is synchronous speed n1) and the rotor winding, the rotor winding cuts the magnetic induction line to generate induction electromotive force, thus induced current is generated in rotor winding. The induction current in the rotor winding acts on the magnetic field to produce electromagnetic torque, thus making the rotor rotate. As the rotor speed approaches the synchronous speed, the induced current decreases and the electromagnetic torque decreases accordingly. When the asynchronous motor works in the motor state, the rotor speed is smaller than the synchronous speed. In order to describe the difference between rotor speed n and synchronous speed n1, slip ratio is introduced.

    Single Phase to 3 Phase Converter Working Principle

    ATO Single phase to 3 phase converter has the function of filtering the grid disturbance and interference at the same time, which is a good performance of stabilized voltage and frequency power, to provide a more stable and pure power supply environment for the back end devices. Intelligent fan speed control system, low no-load loss. LCD display, high efficiency, easy installation. The output frequency 50Hz/60Hz can be set.

    How Does an Infrared Thermometer Work?

    Understanding the infrared thermometers’ working principle, technical specifications, working conditions, operation and maintenance is the basis for users to correctly select an infrared thermometer or use it. An infrared thermometer consists of optical system, photoelectric detector, signal amplifier, signal processing and display output. The optical system of infrared thermometer accumulates the target infrared energy in its field of view. And the size of field of view is determined by the optical components and location of the thermometer. The infrared energy is focused on the photoelectric detector and converted to corresponding electrical signal. The signal is corrected by the amplifier and signal processing circuit according to the algorithm inside the instrument and the target emissivity and then is converted to the temperature value of measured target.

    The Principle of Current Transformer Connection

    The secondary side is not allowed for open circuit. Once it's open circuited, current I1 at the primary side would fully turn to magnetizing current, φm and E2 would increase sharply. As a result, the iron core would occur supersaturation magnetization, heat seriously and even burn out coils. Meanwhile, supersaturation magnetization of the magnetic circuit would increase errors. Under normal operation, secondary side of the current transformer is nearly short circuited, if it's broken suddenly, the excitation electromotive force increases sharply, the magnetic flow in the iron core shows seriously saturated flat waves. As a result, the secondary side winding would induce high spike waves when the magnetic flow passes through zero, it can be thousands or even tens of thousands of volts, thus endangering the personnel safety and insulation performance of instruments.

    Current Transformer Working Principle

    Current transformer consists of closed iron core and winding. It has few primary winding that are connected in series in the current circuit under measurement; however, it has many secondary winding, which are connected in series in the measuring instrument and protection circuits. The current transformer plays the role of converter and electrical isolation, it's a sensor for measuring instrument, relay protection and other secondary equipment to obtain current information of primary circuit in power system. It converts the high current to a low current by ratio, its primary end is connected with the primary system, while the secondary end is connected with the measuring instrument and relay protection.

    Line Reactor, How it Works?

    A conductor will produce magnetic field in a certain range of space it occupies when it's powered on, so all electric conductors carrying current are inductive on a general sense. However, a long straight conductor often generates a small inductance, the generated magnetic field is not strong, so the actual line reactor is a wire wound solenoid, which is also called air core line reactor. Sometimes an iron core would be inserted into the solenoid to generate greater inductance, which is called iron core line reactor. Reactance is divided into inductive reactance and capacitive reactance, in the more scientific division, both impedor (inductor) and reactance (capacitor) are called line reactor. However, as inductor appeared earlier and was called line reactor, the capacitor people often say only refers to the reactance, and line reactor refers specifically to the inductor.ATO Line Reactor Main function of three-phase output line reactor is to compensate the influence of long line distributed capacitance, restrict the output of harmonic current and improve output high frequency impedance, thus protecting the inverter.

    Uninterruptible power supply (UPS), how it works?

    UPS power system consists of 4 parts: rectification, energy storage, transformation and on-off control. UPS realizes the function of voltage stabilization with rectifier, which is generally a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) or high-frequency switching rectifier. The rectifier controls the output amplitude according to the change of external power supply; when the external power supply changes (the change should meet the system requirements), it outputs a rectified voltage whose amplitude keeps unchanged. Purification function of UPS is completed by the energy storage battery. As the rectifier cannot eliminate instantaneous pulse interference, the rectified voltage still has interference pulse. Energy storage battery can not only store DC power, but also plays a role of large-capacity capacitor for the rectifier, its equivalent capacitance is proportional to the capacity of energy storage battery. As the voltage at both ends of the capacitor can’t change suddenly, the pulse interference is eliminated due to the smoothness property of capacitor for pulses, thus realizing the purification, as well as the shielding against interference. Converter guarantees a stable frequency of uninterruptible power supply. Frequency stability is determined by the stability of the converter's oscillation frequency. To facilitate daily operation and maintenance of UPS power system, an operating switch, automatic bypass switch after fault self-checking, overhaul bypass switch are designed in this system.

    Surge Protection Device Working Principle

    A built-in power lightning protection device should be used in the internal power supply of the electrical equipment which functions as the final line of defense, so as to completely eliminate the tiny transient overvoltage. The power lightning arrester used at this level requires a maximum impact capacity of 20KA per phase or less, and the required limit voltage should be less than 1000V. It is necessary to provide class-III protection for some particularly important or sensitive electronic devices, as well as to protect the electrical equipment from transient overvoltage produced within the system.

    Brushless DC Motor Working Principle

    Brushless DC motor (BLDC) uses electronic phase-changing circuit to supply DC power to motor rotor winding. Since there is no mechanical brush, it is called brushless DC motor. Because of brushless DC motor with high efficiency and accurate control performance, and can use the electronic packaging to meet the needs of security specification features. Under the demands of global energy conservation and carbon reduction, it is widely applied in the field of air conditioning, such as common DC inverter, brushless DC technology; it also can be used in hybrid electric vehicle and some appliances of high economic value, such as electric fans and other products.

    Safety Relay Working Principle

    Safety relay can be classified into electromagnetic safety relay, thermal reed relay and solid-state relay. The working principle of safety relays can also be roughly divided into three types. Safety relay is composed of several relays and circuits, so as to supplement each other's abnormal defects and achieve the complete function of relay with correct and low faulty operation, so as to make the error and failure value become lower, thus reaching higher safety factor. Therefore, multiple safety relays should be designed to protect different grades of machinery. It is used to mainly protect the mechanical operators who perform operation under different levels of risk.

    How Does a Transformer Work?

    How does a transformer work? Transformers mainly applies electromagnetic induction principle to work, the working principle details are as follows: When the primary side of the transformer is applied with the alternating voltage U1 and the current flowing through the primary winding is I1, then the current will generate alternating magnetic flux in the iron core to generate electromagnetic connections between the primary winding and the secondary windings.

    Brushless DC Motor, How it works?

    Brushless DC motor consists of the motor and drive, is a typical mechatronic product. The stator windings of the motor are mostly made using three-phase symmetrical star connection, which is very similar to the three-phase asynchronous motor. Magnetically charged permanent magnets are attached to the rotor of the motor. In order to detect the polarity of the motor rotor, a position sensor is provided in the motor.

    Working Principle of Solenoid Valve

    The solenoid valve is industrial equipment controlled by electromagnetism. It is an automatic basic element to control the fluid. It belongs to the actuator, but not limits to the hydraulic pressure and pneumatic control. In the industrial control system, the solenoid valve is used to regulate the direction, flow rate, speed and other parameters of the medium. The solenoid valve can coordinate with different circuits to realize the anticipated control, with both control precision and flexibility being guaranteed.
    solenoid valve 2 way 2 port

    Three Phase Induction Motor Working Principle

    How does an 3-phase induction motor work? In short, it works based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When the stator windings are supplied with three-phase alternating current, a rotating magnetic field is generated between the stator and the rotor. The rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor windings to generate induced electromotive force and current in the rotor circuit. The current in the rotor conductor forces the rotor to rotate under the effect of the rotating magnetic field. Below, let’s specifically analyze the generation of rotating magnetic field, its direction and speed as well as slip.

    Magnetostrictive sensor working principle

    Magnetostrictive sensor indicates a kind of displacement detecting device developed based on ferromagnetic material magnetostrictive effect. It could be used for continuously, precisely and real-time detecting the displacement (position) and velocity of various moving parts under abominably industrial environment. As an important component to realize precise operation and control, it can substantially enhance the precision and efficiency of the whole system. It is applicable for detecting the stroke or position of mechanical device with rectilinear motion. Precision servo feedback control of hydraulic system is one of the most typical applications.

    Electromagnetic Relay Working Principle & Testing

    How does an electromagnetic relay work? Electromagnetic relay uses electromagnet to control “on” or “off” status of the operating circuit. Electromagnetic relay consists of electromagnet, armature, spring, movable contact and stationary contact. When placing voltage to both ends of a coil, the coil will be flowed with current and generate electromagnetic effect.

    Planetary Speed Reducer Working Principle and Applications

    The planetary speed reducer or gearbox is a kind of transmission mechanism. It utilizes the speed transducer of the gearbox to reduce the turnover number of the motor to the required one and obtain a big torque. How does a planetary gearbox work? We can learn more about it from the structure. The main transmission structure of the planetary gearbox is planet gears, sun gear and ring gear.